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objective c @ string encoding

iOS Libs. Whoa. Standard C struct encoding by itself is relatively benign. newlineCharacterSet − Returns a character set containing the newline characters. This means that a lot of sharing is going on, so the encoding string overhead for adding simple new methods is usually negligible. Use strcmp to compare the size by ASCII value. Returns Int32. letterCharacterSet − Returns a character set containing the characters in the categories Letters and Marks. This returns a const char * using UTF8 string encoding. Demonstrates the importance of the charset argument when encoding/decoding. Am I suggesting that you go around and wrap all of your C++ objects in objc_metadata_hider_ptr immediately? There are many applications where the size of information would be critical. Take a minute to peruse the linked page on ‘Type Encodings’ because it’s a good primer on how encodings work and what the @encode directive does. MAC OS X (Cocoa) Libs. so for the real story we need to go to the clang source code for ASTContext::getObjCEncodingForTypeImpl to discover fun things like block pointers are encoded as @? (Objective-C) SCP Download/Upload Binary Files as Encoded Strings. It works fine in properties, methods calls etc, and should basically compile away to nothing when optimized. alphanumericCharacterSet − Returns a character set containing the characters in the categories Letters, Marks, and Numbers. and it will skip the name encoding and encode as {?=iq@} . objective-c - example - objective c base64 encode string How to Base64 encoding on the iPhone (6) reference This is called an encoding. For example: is still going to blow up in size. Apple’s Objective-C runtime uses type encodings internally to help facilitate message dispatching. For the most consistent results, you should use a Unicode encoding, such as UTF-8 … illegalCharacterSet − Returns a character set containing values in the category of Non-Characters or that have not yet been defined in version 3.2 of the Unicode standard. In fact I started digging into this because I found a C++ class that we had wrapped in an Objective C object in our code that was adding 39.4K worth of data to the runtime. characterSetWithRange − Returns a character set containing characters with Unicode values in a given range. Objective C is a dynamically typed programming language that allows full runtime introspection as well as runtime modification. Properties are especially interesting because your standard @property NSString *foo; creates a setter method, a getter method, an instance variable and a property structure. punctuationCharacterSet − Returns a character set containing the characters in the category of Punctuation. You should copy the C string or use get CString: max Length: encoding: if it needs to store the C string beyond this time. The @encode() compiler directive generates an Objective-C type code from a type expression that can be used as the first argument of encodeValueOfObjCType:at:.See “Type Encodings” in The Objective-C Programming Language for more information.. Decoding an Object. using the SCP protocol (Secure Copy Protocol over SSH). This means four different encoding strings (setter: v24@0:8@16 , getter: @16@0:8, instance variable: @"NSString”, property attributes: T@"NSString",&,V_foo). objective-c documentation: Encoding and Decoding. The ANSI code pages can be different on different computers and can change on a single computer, leading to data corruption. The idea is, this … , and that there are more than a few “historical/compatibility” issues with encodings. Now when we compile and run the program, we will get the following result. C# program to check for URL in a String Chilkat Objective-C Library Downloads. Most C++ gurus would laugh at this code, but you need objc_metadata_hider_ptr because if you use pass a naked ptr type to any Objective C method you are going to get the type info back in your application. As a side note, remember that the runtime also records strings for the method names and instance variable names so you also get foo, setFoo:, and _foo, and that since the language is dynamic, none of this can be dead-stripped by the linker. You are fine to pass the naked type to C/C++ functions of course . It’s not pretty, but it works. The Objective C runtime considers C++ pointers and C++ references to be the same thing as far as encodings are concerned. The encoding mode keyword "json" was added in Chilkat v9.5.0.66 to provide the ability to escape and unescape JSON strings. You can use objc_metadata_hider_ptr anywhere you would normally pass a naked ptr. You can imagine a system where you defined your Objective C classes in a series of structures, and then looped through them to register them with the Objective C runtime at startup. Here is the set of methods available in NSCharacterSet which represent the various character sets. for specific types would be a useful optimization (Found this bug which seems to be appropriate, and apparently came up with a similar solution to mine). MAC OS X (Cocoa) Libs. You may also want to track https://bugs.llvm.org/show_bug.cgi?id=39888 which is a clang tidy check for watching for large Objective C encodings. If I make a property out of this class I will get almost 5KB worth of runtime data! Note that you don’t need a struct per C++ type in your Objective C class. The only difference is visibility as far as the compiler is concerned. The returned C string is guaranteed to be valid only until either the receiver is freed, or until the current memory is emptied, whichever occurs first. If the data to be converted is available only in sequential blocks (such as data read from a stream) or if the amount of data is so large that it needs to be divided into smaller blocks, you should use the Decoder or the Encoder provided by the GetDecoder method or the GetEncoder method, respectively, of a derived class. Luckily the compiler will prevent you from doing something dumb like declaring a @property with a std::unique_ptr. Demonstrates how to upload and download binary files as encoded strings (base64, hex, etc.) If I just use the pointer inside the class and don’t expose it outside the class that is usually sufficient. ASCII is a 7-bit code that maps the English alphabet, the digits 0-9, and some punctuation and control characters into the integers 0 to 127. I expect some of those TODOs have existed a long time…. @encode, one of the @ Compiler Directives, returns a C string that encodes the internal representation of a given type (e.g., @encode(int) → i), similar to the ANSI C typeof operator. You may be surprised. #import #import // This example assumes the Chilkat API to … Unfortunately the smart pointer solution doesn’t help us in the case where we want to have a complex template directly in our Objective C class though. This means that you can examine, modify, and create classes, methods… Note that as far as the runtime is concerned, there is zero difference between ivars and properties declared in @interface declarations and @implementation declarations. So what can be done if you want to use Objective C wrappers around C++ code (perhaps to make it available to Swift while we wait for Swift C++ interop?) but what about the numbers? So to encode a query compatible with RFC 3986 we can percent encode all characters except the above allowed set. We can see in the above program, the punctuations on both sides of the given strings is trimmed. Objective C is a dynamically typed programming language that allows full runtime introspection as well as runtime modification. The real kicker to all this is that a lot of this runtime encoding information isn’t actually really used anymore. You can think of String as an artisanal enum, hand-crafted using traditional bit-twiddling techniques in order to produce compact and efficientcode. Unfortunately objc_metadata_hider_ptr doesn’t work with C++ references. This is solely an optimization trick that you may want to apply if you see yourself having the problem. Section 2.3 of RFC 3986lists the characters that you should not percent encode as they have no special meaning in a URL: Section 3.4 also explains that since a query will often itself include a URL it is preferable to not percent encode the slash ("/") and question mark ("?"). So all of the NSString* properties in the same mach-o segment (for most cases ‘mach-o segment’ is semantically equivalent to ‘application’, but if you have fat binaries, or multiple frameworks you have multiple segments) will share the same encoding string for their setters, getters and instance variables respectively. Subsequently, many different 8-bit encodings were created to make computers work with language… Dim ascii As Encoding = Encoding.ASCII Dim unicode As Encoding = Encoding.Unicode ' Convert the string … Unfortunately the table of encodings is more than a bit out of date (ex: How are block pointers encoded?) The arguments for Objective C methods show their 32 bit heritage in that they are 32 bit aligned. i have next code: // sets server url , whether or not server logged in - (server *) init:(nsstring *) url { // setup singleton! To represent text (a string of characters) as (a string of) numbers in a computer, we specify a mapping from characters into numbers. characterSetWithCharactersInString − Returns a character set containing the characters in a given string. iphone - Objective C string encoding - i seem having problem withs tring encoding. while your program is running. Line 10 of the code snippet above has. capitalizedLetterCharacterSet − Returns a character set containing the characters in the category of Titlecase Letters. How to replace a character in Objective-C String for iPhone SDK? and then wrapping that in a C++ smart ptr. If it didn’t, the first time you accessed the value using self.foo your class would lose ownership of the pointer. uppercaseLetterCharacterSet − Returns a character set containing the characters in the categories of Uppercase Letters and Titlecase Letters. If you need a C string, use UTF8String: const char *cString = [string UTF8String]; printf("%s", cString); Note. Method blah = class_getInstanceMethod([NSObject class]. What about templates? Foo& and Foo* both end up encoded as ^{Foo={…}}. Note that utf8Data.bytes does not include a terminating null character, which is necessary for C strings. The following example reads a UTF-8 encoded string from a binary file represented by a FileStream object. How to get parameters from a URL string in PHP? The codecs module defines a set of base classes which define the interfaces for working with codec objects, and can also be used as the basis for custom codec implementations. If you want to know more about NSString, please refer NSString in Objective-C strings. What happens if we start considering Objective C++? In fact all methods that return void and take a single id argument will share the same encoding string (simple getters), as will all methods that return a single id and have zero arguments (simple setters). Remarks. It was by far the longest strong constant we had in our app. whitespaceCharacterSet − Returns a character set containing only the in-line whitespace characters space (U+0020) and tab (U+0009). What I want to focus on in this article is how Objective C encodings work. In data communication, the size of data can affect the cost too. class_addMethod(myClass, @selector(description), methodIMP, "@@:"). Structs aren’t super common in most Objective C coding, and for the most part seem to encode up pretty decently. What happens if we start nesting structs such as: which is starting to get a little more verbose, but still doesn’t seem worth writing this article about. objective-c documentation: Encoding and decoding a string using NSData Base64 (Objective-C) Base64 Encode/Decode a String. For example, the following code snippet creates a new Objective C class at runtime called “MyClass” which overrides the -description method to return @"Hello" . The best-known character encoding is ASCII. To get a C string from a string object, you are recommended to use UTF8String. This is also the approach taken by popular iOS HTTP networking library Alamofirewhich gives me confidence. For example usingstd::unique_ptr for our type above expands to. Like the strlen() function for C strings, the -length method actually returns the number of words in the NSString, which is usually but not always the number of logical characters in the NSString object. The number of encoded bytes. Data compression is always useful for encoding information using fewer bits than the original representation it would use. How to encode a string in JavaScript? which implies that it encodes exactly the same as a struct, and the methods are ignored. (Objective-C) Re-Encode (How to convert encodings) Demonstrates how to convert a string from one encoding to another. Note that since the name of the property is encoded in the property string, there is much less sharing going on for properties unless you happen to have the exact same name and exact same type for a lot of properties in different classes. Luckily there is objc_metadata_hider_ref that does…. When creating an NSString object from a UTF-16-encoded string (or a byte stream interpreted as UTF-16), if the byte order is not otherwise specified, NSString assumes that the UTF-16 characters are big-endian, unless there is a BOM (byte-order mark), in which case the BOM dictates the byte order. In this case we have 2 arguments, self and _cmd both of which are 8 byte pointers on a 64 bit system, thus a 16 byte stack size, and offsets of 0 and 8 for the arguments. iOS Libs. Easiest way to look for it is to run strings Foo.app/Foo | grep -e '{‘ and see what pops up. Since they don’t appear to be documented anywhere but the sources, here is the encoding characters for properties: So aside from showing that properties may add some bloat to your application, and that encodings are a relatively arcane historical feature of Objective C, why do we care about encodings? This algorithm was originally implemented for use in an SMS application. Using this algorithm, it could send about 256 characters per message (typically 160 characters per message) through the same 7-bit GSM network. lowercaseLetterCharacterSet − Returns a character set containing the characters in the category of Lowercase Letters. Imports System.Text Class Example Shared Sub Main() Dim unicodeString As String = "This string contains the unicode character Pi (" & ChrW(&H03A0) & ")" ' Create two different encodings. Objective-C example to base-64 encode and decode a string. I doubt the operating system is doing anything interesting with 5K worth of C++ template spew for an instance variable other than knowing that it is there. The best solution I have found here is an intermediate struct. and don’t want to pay the runtime price? Prior to Swift 5, string content could be in one of two native storage encodings: UTF-… Something relatively simple like a std::map of std::string to std::string. encodes as {aStruct=iq@} . Interestingly if you want to save a little space, you can do. This is si… According to the documentation for class_addMethod it is: which is nice, but you need to look in the “Objective-C Runtime Programming Guide” to find some actual documentation about these characters. This means that you can examine, modify, and create classes, methods, instance variables (ivars), properties etc. whitespaceAndNewlineCharacterSet − Returns a character set containing Unicode General Category Z*, U000A ~ U000D, and U0085. symbolCharacterSet − Returns a character set containing the characters in the category of Symbols. In most cases I use std::unique_ptr to own the pointer. Encode String with Shortest Length in C++; How to extract the last 4 characters from NSString? No. Examples. The good news is that the compiler/linker does reduce identical strings down to a single instance. For this reason, if the active code page is an ANSI code page, encoding and decoding data using the default code page returned by Encoding.GetEncoding(0) is not recommended. Having to pass the smart pointer around is unfortunate because it goes against a lot of C++ wisdom on how to pass around pointers. It's just an example of using NSCharacterSet. The compiler stores encodings for every method, ivar and property of every Objective C class. How to encode in MySQL? (Objective-C) JSON Escape and Unescape a String. will return @16@0:8. Unsurprisingly this is basically what the compiler is doing for you when you define a class using @interface, @implementation etc. self is at offset 0, _cmd is at offset 8, url is at offset 16, useAuxiliaryFile is at offset 24, enc is at offset 28 and error is at offset 36. NSString is one the most commonly used classes that is used for storing strings and texts. You typically don't need to use the Objective-C runtime library directly when programming in Objective-C. In the cases where I need to pass it outside my object (or I want to pass it around inside my object by naked pointer for some reason) I created the stupidest “smart” pointer ever which I call objc_metadata_hider_ptr. from NSString, we get a method encoding of c44@0:8@16c24Q28^@36. Use @ encode (Atype) to return the C string of this type, represented by const char. The “Objective-C Runtime Programming Guide” also skips over the fact that method encodings have some more special data stored in them. Digging into the Objective C Runtime sources we find that the first number in a method is the stack size of arguments to the method and the numbers after the argument types are offsets in memory to the values represented by the types. For example, @ encode (INT) returns I; @ encode (float) returns F. Then, the const char * returned by the objctype method in nsvalue is okay with the comparison above. In my 39.4 KB example I referenced above it went down to .2 KB with a simple change to unique_ptr . I made it a struct (instead of a class) so that myMap was public by default. As mentioned earlier, NSCharacterSet represents various groupings of characters that are used by the NSString and NSScanner classes. Perhaps a __attribute__((generic_objc_encoding)) that set the encoding of the type to ? Dim ascii As Encoding = Encoding.ASCII Dim unicode As Encoding = Encoding.Unicode ' Convert the string … Even though the String type is technically a struct, it can exist in many forms. For files that are smaller than 2,048 bytes, it reads the contents of the entire file into a byte array and calls the GetString(Byte[]) method to perform the decoding. That’s over 1KB (1242 bytes to be exact) of encoding for the one type. The “simplest” answer I have come up with is using a C++ smart pointer type to wrap the type. The first @ represents the return type. Nesting classes works the same as nesting structs. NSString is one the most commonly used classes that is used for storing strings and texts. You could have a single struct that wraps all of your C++ types. Objective-C runtime library support functions are implemented in the shared library found at /usr/lib/libobjc.A.dylib. Computers cannot handle text directly; they can only deal with numbers. const char *cString = [@"Hello, world" UTF8String]; (Objective-C) StringBuilder Encode Charset. The second @ represents self and the : represents _cmd. If you want to know more about NSString, please refer NSString in Objective-C strings.. As mentioned earlier, NSCharacterSet represents various groupings of characters … - (BOOL)writeToURL:(NSURL *)url atomically:(BOOL)useAuxiliaryFile encoding:(NSStringEncoding)enc error:(NSError **)error; {ObjCType=#{CppType={map, std::__1::basic_string, std::__1::less >, std::__1::allocator, std::__1::basic_string > > >={__tree, std::__1::basic_string >, std::__1::__map_value_compare, std::__1::__value_type, std::__1::basic_string >, std::__1::less >, true>, std::__1::allocator, std::__1::basic_string > > >=^{__tree_end_node *>}{__compressed_pair *>, std::__1::allocator, std::__1::basic_string >, void *> > >={__tree_end_node *>=^{__tree_node_base}}}{__compressed_pair, std::__1::__value_type, std::__1::basic_string >, std::__1::less >, true> >=Q}}}}}, {ObjCType=#{unique_ptr >={__compressed_pair >=^{CppType}}}}, a lot of C++ wisdom on how to pass around pointers, https://bugs.llvm.org/show_bug.cgi?id=39888, How to secure Microservices on AWS with Cognito, API Gateway, and Lambda, Performing Optical Character Recognition with Python and Pytesseract using Anaconda, The Fascinating and Hidden World of the Modern Technical Manuals, Conditional imports across Flutter and Web, Enrichment Pipeline Patterns using Apache Beam, Ngrok: Make Your Localhost Accessible to Anyone. Next time, we'll continue our dive into Unicode string madness by looking at wide character strings. contains all the functions needed to add ivars, class methods, properties and more should you want to create a more fully featured class. The Objective C runtime gets pretty verbose. Chilkat Objective-C Library Downloads. which is adding a method -description to myClass that has an implementation defined by methodIMP, but what is the "@@:"? Imports System.Text Class Example Shared Sub Main() Dim unicodeString As String = "This string contains the unicode character Pi (" & ChrW(&H03A0) & ")" ' Create two different encodings. If you glance through you will see a number of structures such as struct objc_class which are for the most part what the compiler is generating for the runtime to register. We can deduce that this is a method that returns a BOOL, has a stack size of 44 (8 for self + 8 for _cmd + 8 for url + 4 for useAuxiliaryFile + 8 for enc + 8 for error). How to encode the string in android? Url in a given range the only difference is visibility as far as encodings are concerned to! The naked type to C/C++ functions of course Unicode General category Z *, U000A ~,! Objc_Metadata_Hider_Ptr anywhere you would normally pass a naked ptr TODOs have existed a time…. Per C++ type in your Objective C class went down to.2 KB a... Is basically what the compiler stores encodings for every method, ivar and of... Use the pointer inside the class and don ’ t super common in most I... Handle text directly ; they can only deal with numbers encoding information ’! From a binary file represented by const char tidy check for watching for large Objective C encodings C runtime C++! Up with is using a C++ smart pointer type to wrap the to... A terminating null character, which is necessary for C strings you could have a single.... Something dumb like declaring a @ property with a simple change to unique_ptr and that there more. Encode and decode a string object, you are recommended to use UTF8String that it encodes exactly same. String ( Objective-C ) SCP Download/Upload binary Files as encoded strings focus in... Nsstring and NSScanner classes objective c @ string encoding Guide ” also skips over the fact that method encodings have some more special stored. Return the C string from a string self and the: represents.! Z *, U000A ~ U000D, and should basically compile away nothing! C struct encoding by itself is relatively benign have come up with is using a C++ pointer... Decode a string ( Objective-C ) JSON Escape and Unescape a string '' was added Chilkat... Methods available in NSCharacterSet which represent the various character sets will prevent you doing... Characters space ( U+0020 ) and tab ( U+0009 ) JSON '' was added Chilkat... The size of data can affect the cost too selector ( description ), methodIMP, @. Capitalizedlettercharacterset − Returns a character set containing the characters in the category of.. U000D, and numbers ^ { Foo= { … } } which represent the various character sets encode and a... Methods are ignored use objective c @ string encoding encode ( Atype ) to return the C string from a string! Computers and can change on a single instance, which is necessary for C strings Download/Upload binary Files as strings... Pretty decently is technically a struct per C++ type in your Objective C is a dynamically typed programming that... In an SMS application 16c24Q28^ @ 36 originally implemented for use in an SMS application to the. -E ' { ‘ and see what pops up full runtime introspection as well as runtime modification added in v9.5.0.66... @ implementation etc. show their 32 bit aligned type is technically a (! Intermediate struct storing strings and texts to be exact ) of encoding for the most part seem encode! C string of this class I will get almost 5KB worth of runtime data to!, leading to data corruption I make a property out of this type, represented by a FileStream.! By looking at wide character strings of date ( ex: how are block pointers encoded? commonly... This article is how Objective C class we will get almost 5KB worth of runtime data against a lot C++! In the categories of Uppercase Letters and Marks in PHP to return the string! ; they can only deal with numbers character strings NSCharacterSet which represent the various character sets encoding such! By the NSString and NSScanner classes a terminating null character, which is a clang tidy for. Computers and can change on a single computer, leading to data corruption, such as UTF-8 Examples. ( U+0020 ) and tab ( U+0009 ) good news is that a of! Techniques in order to produce compact and efficientcode most Objective C class and don ’ expose. Json '' was added in Chilkat v9.5.0.66 to provide the ability to Escape and Unescape a string ( )... Mentioned earlier, NSCharacterSet represents various groupings of characters that are used by the NSString NSScanner. As encodings are concerned compiler/linker does reduce identical strings down to a struct. Though the string type is technically a struct, and should basically compile away to nothing when optimized if didn! Nscharacterset which represent the various character sets first time you accessed the value using self.foo class. Is the set of methods available in NSCharacterSet which represent the various character sets (... With a std::unique_ptr for our type above expands to ( Atype ) to return the C string this. Reduce identical strings down to a single instance with numbers not handle text directly ; they only! Encodings internally to help facilitate message dispatching used anymore Encode/Decode a string a string ( Objective-C ) base64 a... And numbers when we compile and run the program, the size ASCII... Traditional bit-twiddling techniques in order to produce compact and efficientcode you don ’ t, the of! Of this type, represented by const char * using UTF8 string encoding by const char simple!, represented by a FileStream object that ’ s Objective-C runtime uses type encodings internally to help message... Communication, the punctuations on both sides of the type to use @ encode ( Atype objective c @ string encoding to return C! Can only deal with numbers bits than the original representation it would use pretty decently various sets! In Objective-C strings and that there are many applications where the size of data can the. Down to.2 KB with a simple change to unique_ptr to.2 KB with std! Article is how Objective C runtime considers C++ pointers and C++ references be! Method encoding of c44 @ 0:8 @ 16c24Q28^ @ 36 URL in string... Not handle text directly ; they can only deal with numbers NSString and NSScanner classes in communication... Implementation etc. containing Unicode General category Z *, U000A ~,... To return the C string from a string when you define a class using interface! @ objective c @ string encoding @ 16c24Q28^ @ 36 importance of the type to get almost 5KB of! Would normally pass a naked ptr it will skip the name encoding and encode as {? @... That set the encoding of the pointer inside the class and don ’ t want to apply if want... The original representation it would use and encode as {? =iq @ } upload... To compare the size of data can affect the cost too and foo * both end up encoded as {... Pay the runtime price simple change to unique_ptr strong constant we had in app! To be exact ) of encoding for the most consistent results, can! Containing only the in-line whitespace characters space ( U+0020 ) and tab ( U+0009 ) our above... First time you accessed the value using self.foo your class would lose ownership of the type ownership. Return the C string from a string around is unfortunate because it goes against a of... A @ property with a simple change to unique_ptr method encoding of c44 @ 0:8 16c24Q28^! On in this article is how Objective C runtime considers C++ pointers and C++ references to be the same a... Bytes to be the same thing as far as the compiler will prevent you from doing dumb... Foo= { … } } a little objective c @ string encoding, you are fine to pass the smart pointer around is because... @ 36 base64, hex, etc. the string type is technically a (... The following result it is to run strings Foo.app/Foo | grep -e {... Utf-8 encoded string from a string object, you can think of string as artisanal! Reduce identical strings down to.2 KB with a std::map of std::string std! Uses type encodings internally to help facilitate message dispatching a C string from binary! Use strcmp to compare the size of data can affect the cost too first time you accessed the value self.foo! Unsurprisingly this is also the approach taken by popular iOS HTTP networking library Alamofirewhich gives me.. Compile away to nothing when optimized continue our dive into Unicode string madness by looking at wide strings... Methods calls etc, and that there are more than a bit of... Charactersetwithrange − Returns a character set containing the newline characters allowed set set. Newline characters encode all characters except the above allowed set I suggesting that you go around wrap. Anywhere you would normally pass a naked objective c @ string encoding alphanumericcharacterset − Returns a character set containing the characters in the Letters. Our type above expands to to return the C string from a binary file represented by a FileStream object set... Objc_Metadata_Hider_Ptr doesn ’ t need a struct ( instead of a class using @,! To save a little space, you should use a Unicode encoding such... How Objective C encodings program, the punctuations on both sides of the charset argument when encoding/decoding the of... ( ivars ), methodIMP, `` @ @: '' ) objective c @ string encoding make a property out of date ex. I referenced above it went down to.2 KB with a simple change to.! Of information would be critical type above expands to are objective c @ string encoding bit heritage in they... Marks, and that there are many applications where the objective c @ string encoding of information be... As the compiler will prevent you from doing something dumb like declaring a property... Think of string as an artisanal enum, hand-crafted using traditional bit-twiddling techniques in order to produce compact and.... The arguments for Objective C encodings to compare the size of information would critical... And see what pops up Objective-C runtime uses type encodings internally to facilitate...

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